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These solutions cut and pasted Schwarzschild black holes to make a bridge between two patches. If one end of a wormhole was positively charged, the other end would be negatively charged.
These properties led Einstein to believe that pairs of particles and antiparticles could be described in this way.
In order to incorporate spinning point particles into general relativity, the affine connection needed to be generalized to include an antisymmetric part, called the torsion.
This modification was made by Einstein and Cartan in the s. The theory of general relativity has a fundamental law—the Einstein equations which describe how space curves, the geodesic equation which describes how particles move may be derived from the Einstein equations.
Since the equations of general relativity are non-linear, a lump of energy made out of pure gravitational fields, like a black hole, would move on a trajectory which is determined by the Einstein equations themselves, not by a new law.
So Einstein proposed that the path of a singular solution, like a black hole, would be determined to be a geodesic from general relativity itself.
This was established by Einstein, Infeld, and Hoffmann for pointlike objects without angular momentum, and by Roy Kerr for spinning objects.
In a paper,  Einstein postulated that light itself consists of localized particles quanta. He does not say much more, because he is not sure how the particles are related to the wave.
But he does suggest that this idea would explain certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect.
In , Einstein proposed a model of matter where each atom in a lattice structure is an independent harmonic oscillator. In the Einstein model, each atom oscillates independently—a series of equally spaced quantized states for each oscillator.
Einstein was aware that getting the frequency of the actual oscillations would be difficult, but he nevertheless proposed this theory because it was a particularly clear demonstration that quantum mechanics could solve the specific heat problem in classical mechanics.
Peter Debye refined this model. Throughout the s, quantum mechanics expanded in scope to cover many different systems. After Ernest Rutherford discovered the nucleus and proposed that electrons orbit like planets, Niels Bohr was able to show that the same quantum mechanical postulates introduced by Planck and developed by Einstein would explain the discrete motion of electrons in atoms, and the periodic table of the elements.
Einstein contributed to these developments by linking them with the arguments Wilhelm Wien had made. Wien had shown that the hypothesis of adiabatic invariance of a thermal equilibrium state allows all the blackbody curves at different temperature to be derived from one another by a simple shifting process.
Einstein noted in that the same adiabatic principle shows that the quantity which is quantized in any mechanical motion must be an adiabatic invariant.
Arnold Sommerfeld identified this adiabatic invariant as the action variable of classical mechanics. In , Einstein received a description of a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose , based on a counting method that assumed that light could be understood as a gas of indistinguishable particles.
Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose—Einstein condensate phenomenon that some particulates should appear at very low temperatures.
Although the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class in , he had not given up on academia. In , he became a Privatdozent at the University of Bern.
This paper introduced the photon concept although the name photon was introduced later by Gilbert N. Lewis in and inspired the notion of wave—particle duality in quantum mechanics.
Einstein saw this wave—particle duality in radiation as concrete evidence for his conviction that physics needed a new, unified foundation.
In a series of works completed from to , Planck reformulated his quantum theory and introduced the idea of zero-point energy in his "second quantum theory".
Soon, this idea attracted the attention of Einstein and his assistant Otto Stern. Assuming the energy of rotating diatomic molecules contains zero-point energy, they then compared the theoretical specific heat of hydrogen gas with the experimental data.
The numbers matched nicely. However, after publishing the findings, they promptly withdrew their support, because they no longer had confidence in the correctness of the idea of zero-point energy.
In , at the height of his work on relativity, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission , the physical process that makes possible the maser and the laser.
This paper was enormously influential in the later development of quantum mechanics, because it was the first paper to show that the statistics of atomic transitions had simple laws.
In another major paper from this era, Einstein gave a wave equation for de Broglie waves , which Einstein suggested was the Hamilton—Jacobi equation of mechanics.
Einstein was displeased with modern quantum mechanics as it had evolved after Contrary to popular belief, his doubts were not due to a conviction that God "is not playing at dice.
Einstein believed that a physical reality exists independent of our ability to observe it. In contrast, Bohr and his followers maintained that all we can know are the results of measurements and observations, and that it makes no sense to speculate about an ultimate reality that exists beyond our perceptions.
The Bohr—Einstein debates were a series of public disputes about quantum mechanics between Einstein and Niels Bohr , who were two of its founders.
Their debates are remembered because of their importance to the philosophy of science. In , Einstein returned quantum mechanics, in particular to the question of its completeness, in the "EPR paper".
No matter how far the two particles were separated, a precise position measurement on one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the position of the other particle; likewise a precise momentum measurement of one particle would result in equally precise knowledge of the momentum of the other particle, without needing to disturb the other particle in any way.
Einstein rejected this second possibility popularly called "spooky action at a distance". Bell had delineated in The results of these and subsequent experiments demonstrate that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the picture of physics in which "particles are regarded as unconnected independent classical-like entities, each one being unable to communicate with the other after they have separated.
Although Einstein was wrong about local realism, his clear prediction of the unusual properties of its opposite, entangled quantum states , has resulted in the EPR paper becoming among the top ten papers published in Physical Review.
It is considered a centerpiece of the development of quantum information theory. Following his research on general relativity, Einstein entered into a series of attempts to generalize his geometric theory of gravitation to include electromagnetism as another aspect of a single entity.
In , he described his " unified field theory " in a Scientific American article titled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation". In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, Einstein ignored some mainstream developments in physics, most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces , which were not well understood until many years after his death.
Einstein conducted other investigations that were unsuccessful and abandoned. These pertain to force , superconductivity , and other research.
In addition to longtime collaborators Leopold Infeld , Nathan Rosen , Peter Bergmann and others, Einstein also had some one-shot collaborations with various scientists.
Einstein and De Haas demonstrated that magnetization is due to the motion of electrons, nowadays known to be the spin.
In order to show this, they reversed the magnetization in an iron bar suspended on a torsion pendulum. This experiment needed to be sensitive, because the angular momentum associated with electrons is small, but it definitively established that electron motion of some kind is responsible for magnetization.
Then to each possible quantum motion of a particle in a box associate an independent harmonic oscillator. Quantizing these oscillators, each level will have an integer occupation number, which will be the number of particles in it.
This formulation is a form of second quantization , but it predates modern quantum mechanics. This absorption refrigerator was then revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat as an input.
Their invention was not immediately put into commercial production, and the most promising of their patents were acquired by the Swedish company Electrolux.
While traveling, Einstein wrote daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters Margot and Ilse. The letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University.
Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death she died in .
Einstein had expressed his interest in the plumbing profession and was made an honorary member of the Plumbers and Steamfitters Union.
Corbis , successor to The Roger Richman Agency, licenses the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the university. In the period before World War II, The New Yorker published a vignette in their "The Talk of the Town" feature saying that Einstein was so well known in America that he would be stopped on the street by people wanting him to explain "that theory".
He finally figured out a way to handle the incessant inquiries. He told his inquirers "Pardon me, sorry! Always I am mistaken for Professor Einstein.
Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films, plays, and works of music. Many popular quotations are often misattributed to him.
Einstein received numerous awards and honors and in he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".
None of the nominations in met the criteria set by Alfred Nobel , so the prize was carried forward and awarded to Einstein in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other people, see Einstein surname. For other uses, see Albert Einstein disambiguation and Einstein disambiguation. German-born physicist and developer of the theory of relativity.
Princeton, New Jersey , US. Swiss Federal Polytechnic —; B. Annus Mirabilis papers , Photoelectric effect , Special theory of relativity , Mass—energy equivalence , and Brownian motion.
Statistical mechanics , thermal fluctuations , and statistical physics. History of special relativity. History of general relativity.
Equivalence principle , Theory of relativity , and Einstein field equations. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Hoboken, NJ published 10 March Einstein, Albert b [Completed 30 April and submitted 20 July ]. Written at Berne, Switzerland, published by Wyss Buchdruckerei.
Einstein, Albert c [Manuscript received: Einstein, Albert d [Manuscript received: Annalen der Physik Berlin Submitted manuscript in German.
Einstein, Albert e [Manuscript received: Einstein, Albert [Published 25 November ]. Physikalische Zeitschrift in German.
Einstein, Albert [First published , in English ]. Nobel Lectures, Physics — in German and English. Einstein, Albert [Published 10 July ].
First of a series of papers on this topic. Die Naturwissenschaften in German. Dover Publications published Physical Review Submitted manuscript.
Einstein, Albert 9 November On Science and Religion. Einstein, Albert; et al. The New York Times. Einstein, Albert May Monthly Review Foundation published May Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 16 January — via MonthlyReview.
Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel — in German. Paul Arthur Schilpp Centennial ed. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48— Stachel, John ; Martin J.
Kox; Michel Janssen; R. Schulmann; Diana Komos Buchwald; et al. The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein. Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project and on the Princeton University Press Einstein Page.
She has chosen the cream of her culture and has suppressed it. She has even turned upon her most glorious citizen, Albert Einstein, who is the supreme example of the selfless intellectual The man, who, beyond all others, approximates a citizen of the world, is without a home.
How proud we must be to offer him temporary shelter. Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed.
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My Autobiography , Simon and Schuster, N. How I See the World". Retrieved May 29, Einstein on Race and Racism.
Institute for Advanced Study. Archived from the original on 29 March Retrieved 4 March Making the Atomic Bomb". Department of Energy, History Division.
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The European Physical Journal H. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Discovering the Expanding Universe. Dit betekent dat u minder terug kunt krijgen dan u heeft ingelegd.
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